In 1584, the Calvinist Dutch appear to be on the brink of defeat by Philip II of Spain. But during this time, Spain and England had begun to have tensions of their own.
Before this, Philip II had been married to Queen Mary of England, who is also called Bloody Mary for her persecution of Protestant Reformers in England. But when Mary died, Elizabeth I took control of England. She was more sympathetic to Protestants, and tension between England and Spain built for several decades.
In 1585, Elizabeth I decided to send armies to the Netherlands to aid the Calvinist Dutch, now led by William’s son Maurice of Orange. This helped the Calvinist Dutch push back the Spanish armies.
The wars against both England and the Netherlands became costly for Spain. When Philip II died and his son Philip III took the throne, Philip III sought a truce to end the fighting.
The truce was signed in 1609, making the northern provinces the Republic of the Netherlands while the southern provinces remained in Spanish control. By this time, many Calvinists in the southern provinces had fled north to safety there while many of the Catholics in the northern provinces had gone south.
While this truce ended the fighting, it was only agreed to last for twelve years. At the end of that twelve years, Spain and the Netherlands either could renew the truce or continue the war. While many of the other nations in Europe now recognized the Republic of the Netherlands as its own country, Spain didn’t.
Finally, after over forty years of fighting, the Calvinist-held Netherlands had peace, at least for a time.
2. _________ II of Spain
3. Queen _______ of England was also called Bloody _______
4. Twelve Years’ _________
6. It was too costly for Spain to have a war against both ____________ and the Netherlands
1. Queen _____________ I of England was more sympathetic to Protestants
3. ___________ of Orange was the son of William the Silent
5. Philip III of _________ inherited the throne from his father